[44] At the time of Ghurid invasion of Delhi, Prithviraj had been sleeping for ten days. Prithviraj Chauhan was a Rajput king who ruled the kingdoms of Ajmer and Delhi in northern India in 12th century; he was one of the last independent Hindu kings to sit upon the throne of Delhi. [18] The Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali mentions that Prithviraj had embarked upon a digvijaya (conquest of all the regions). Early in his career, Prithviraj achieved military successes against several neighbouring Hindu kingdoms, most notably against the Chandela king Paramardi. Folklore has it that Prithviraj Chauhan killed Ghori with the help of his friend Chand Bardai. [36], Prithviraj's predecessors had faced multiple raids from the Muslim dynasties that had captured the north-western areas of the Indian subcontinent by the 12th century. [71] Prithviraj's dynasty was classified as one of the Rajput clans in the later period, including in Prithviraj Raso, although the "Rajput" identity did not exist during his time. [2] In addition, historical evidence suggests that Anangpal Tomar died before the birth of Prithviraj. [6], Prithviraj was born to the Chahamana king Someshvara and queen Karpuradevi (a Kalachuri princess). [4] This war can be dated to sometime before 1187 CE (1244 VS). Nizami does not describe the nature of this conspiracy. Prithiviraj won the battle and captured Muhammad Ghori. [4], The Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali mentions a peace treaty between Prithviraj, and Bhima II, the Chaulukya (Solanki) king of Gujarat. However, this is doubtful. Two-thirds of his warriors sacrificed their life in fight against the Gahadavala army, allowing him to escape to Delhi with Samyogita. After the death of his father in a battle in 1179, Prithviraj Chauhan succeeded the throne. He is also known as Kaimasa, Kaimash or Kaimbasa in the folk legends, which describe him as an able administrator and soldier devoted to the young king. Upon becoming the king he set out on several campaigns in order to expand his territories. Prithviraj and Sanyukta came to know of this and devised a plan to outwit her father. According to Prithviraja Vijaya, a garland made of the defeated soldiers' heads was hung across the Ajmer fort gate. His defeat at the ‘Second battle of Tarain’ (1192) is considered as a key moment in the history of India as it opened the gates for Muslim invaders to rule the northern parts of India. Amid this chaos, the Chahamana soldiers lost their way, and unknowingly encamped in the Chandela capital Mahoba. The Ghurids attacked the Chahamana camp just before dawn, when Prithviraj was sleeping. According to Tabaqat-i Nasiri, he gathered a well-equipped army of 120,000 select Afghan, Tajik and Turkic horsemen over the next few months. Nevertheless, the 19th century British officer James Tod repeatedly used this term to describe Prithviraj in his Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han. [8][9], The medieval biographies of Prithviraj suggest that he was educated well. Prithviraj Chauhan was one of the last independent Hindu kings who ruled the kingdom of Delhi. He started ignoring the state affairs, which ultimately led to his defeat against Muhammad of Ghor. [49], Prithviraj did not pursue the retreating Ghurid army, not wanting to invade hostile territory or misjudge Ghori's ambition. This implies that his empire included present-day Rajasthan, western Uttar Pradesh, northern Madhya Pradesh, and southern Punjab. [38] The Prithviraja Vijaya mentions that the activities of the Ghurid army were like Rahu to the Chahamana kingdom (in Hindu mythology, Rahu swallows the Sun, causing a solar eclipse). The 16th century Muslim historian Firishta estimated the strength of Prithviraj's army as 300,000 horses and 3,000 elephants, in addition to a large infantry. However, the Hindu and Jain writers state that Prithviraj defeated Muhammad multiple times before being killed:[43], While these accounts seem to exaggerate the number, it is possible that more than two engagements took place between the Ghurids and the Chahamanas during Prithviraj's reign. However, Har Bilas Sarda interpreted Naga as the name of a tribe, and theorized that Bhuvanaikamalla defeated this tribe. "[58] Tajul-Ma'asir as well as well as the later text Tabaqat-i Nasiri (c. 1260) present the Ghurid victory over Prithviraj as an important milestone leading to the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate. According to ‘Viruddha-Vidhi Vidhvansa,’ the legendary Indian king was killed on the battlefield. Since Prithviraj was still a minor when he ascended the throne, his mother, Karpuradevi, was made his regent. The war raged on for years and he was finally defeated by the Chaulakya ruler Bhima II in 1187. c. 1178–1192 CE), popularly known as Prithviraj Chauhan or Rai Pithora was a king from the Chahamana (Chauhan) dynasty. [13], According to historian Dasharatha Sharma, Prithviraj assumed actual control of the administration in 1180 CE (1237 VS). Based on these positions and assuming certain other planetary positions, Dasharatha Sharma calculated the year of Prithviraj's birth as 1166 CE (1223 VS). He was a very brave and intelligent child blessed with sharp military skills. After Tod, several narratives continued to describe Prithviraj as "the last Hindu emperor". [82] A number of movies and television serials have been made on his life. These were composed centuries after his death, and contain exaggerations and anachronistic anecdotes. In order to further insult him, he commissioned a clay statue of Prithviraj to be placed as the doorman. While Prithviraj was still a child, in 1175 CE, the Ghurid ruler Muhammad of Ghor crossed the Indus River and captured Multan. These include Prithviraja Vijaya, Hammira Mahakavya and Prithviraj Raso. The Tabaqat-i Nasiri and Tarikh-i-Firishta mention the two Battles of Tarain. For example, the Sanskrit poem anthology Sharngadhara-paddhati (1363) contains a verse praising him, and the Kanhadade Prabandha (1455) mentions him as an earlier incarnation of the Jalore Chahamana king Viramade. [48] In the ensuing battle, Prithviraj's army decisively defeated the Ghurids. [8] The Hammira Mahakavya claims that Someshvara himself installed Prithviraj on the throne, and then retired to the forest. The Chandela king Paramardi asked his general Udal to attack Prithviraj's camp, but Udal advised against this move. [39][40] The Chahamanas did not immediately face a Ghurid invasion, because the Chaulukyas of Gujarat defeated Muhammad at the Battle of Kasahrada in 1178 CE, forcing the Ghurids to retreat. Hariraja was later defeated by the Ghurid general Qutb al-Din Aibak. She desired nobody … During this performance, Prithviraj shot the arrow in the direction of Muhammad's voice and killed him. This is known to be historically false, as the reign of Bhima II lasted nearly half a century after Prithviraj's death. Prithviraj, who was a minor at the time, ascended the throne with his mother as the regent. At the time of his coronation, the young ruler had inherited a kingdom that extended from Sthanvishvara in the north to Mewar in the south.

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